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                  這種小蝦能“襲擊”軍艦,我們成功繳獲了它的武器
                  2019-08-30 08:30:00 來源:科普中國

                  作者:唐鑫

                  編輯:Yuki

                  二戰時期,盟國海軍在追蹤納粹潛艇時,遇到了一件怪事:他們的水下偵聽設備總是受到一些劈里啪啦的噪音的干擾。

                  一開始,誰也不知道這些噪音到底是從哪兒來的。

                  直到科學家們發現了一類奇特的海洋生物——鼔蝦(Alpheidae),俗稱槍蝦。槍蝦廣泛分布在藍星的各個海洋中,從太平洋到大西洋,全面覆蓋了主要的海洋戰場。

                  它們的標志性特征是擁有一雙極不對稱的螯,其中那只惹眼的巨螯有時能長到身長的一半以上,看起來像是扛了一個“小鋼炮”。而水下噪聲的秘密,就藏在這件重型武器里。

                  當年,有一篇極具藝術特質的研究報告,揭示出這些奇特噪聲的秘密[1]。

                    

                  1946年加州大學戰爭研究部海軍電子實驗室關于海洋中槍蝦引起的噪音研究報告 | 參考文獻[1]

                    

                  科學家們用嚴謹的數據和調皮詼諧的插畫描繪了槍蝦們在海底竭力制造噪音的場景。我第一次看到這些插畫時,直接就被這些成套的卡通插圖逗樂了好些天 | 參考文獻[1]

                  槍蝦的致命武器

                  受當時的科學條件所限,科學家們將噪音的來源直觀地解釋為槍蝦巨螯的快速合閉碰撞。

                  在2000年前后,高速攝像機技術快速進步,荷蘭特溫特大學應用物理教授Lohse的研究團隊,通過分析一種槍蝦(Alpheus heterochaelis)的高速影像和水中的聲波信號,指出槍蝦的噪音并非來自于快速閉合的巨螯的碰撞,而是因為巨螯閉合時產生的高速射流引起的空化氣泡(又稱為空化氣穴)[2]。

                    

                  槍蝦的噪音來自巨螯閉合時產生的高速射流引起的空化氣泡 | Del Bohnenstiehl, NC State University

                  這些低壓空化氣泡因為壓差的作用快速坍縮,會使空化氣泡內的水蒸氣和空氣體積急劇壓縮,在坍縮到最小體積的瞬間(納秒級別)產生極高的壓力和溫度(可達5000度),甚至產生激波和大量的光子[3]。

                    

                  高速攝像機拍攝到的槍蝦巨螯閉合的過程 | Michael Price AAAS

                  這種奇特的現象被稱為“蝦光現象”(Shrimpoluminescence)。相關的研究結果分別發表在了《自然》和《科學》兩個頂級期刊上。Lohse教授也因此在同事們的調侃中獲得了“蝦人”的光榮稱號。

                  槍蝦利用這種超級“炮彈”,能夠輕松擊暈甚至殺死敵人或獵物,并產生高達210分貝的噪聲,比真實的槍聲(平均150分貝)還要響,這讓它們成為了海洋中的“噪聲器”。

                  精妙的仿生學設計

                  2015年,我加入德州A&M大學(Texas A&M University)機械系等離子體實驗室,跟隨David Staack教授進行液體中等離子體的相關研究。

                  在一次學術報告上,Staack教授聽到一位與會者有人講到了槍蝦,并指出槍蝦可能在水中生成等離子體,自此對槍蝦產生了濃厚的研究興趣,甚至在ebay上買了兩只條紋槍蝦(Alpheus formosus)放在魚缸里作為孩子們的寵物。

                    

                    Staack教授的家中進擊的條紋槍蝦 | David Staack

                  機緣巧合,我進組后就恰好被安排到槍蝦的項目中,這種奇特的小生物結下了不解之緣,開始研究它的“秘密武器”。

                  剛開始接觸這個課題,我就發覺到蝦光是一個非常復雜的現象。它涉及到生物學,流體力學,工程熱力學,聲學以及等離子體等應用物理的知識。想要人工“重現”這一現象并加以研究也很困難。

                  在回顧歷史研究的過程中,有兩篇有趣的研究文獻吸引了我的目光其中一個是德國的David Hess博士等人[4]關于仿生設計二維蝦螯閉合時產生的渦流研究,另外一篇是基于速度最快的螳螂蝦(Gonodactylus smithii,孔雀螳螂蝦,皮皮蝦的一種)設計的仿生裝置忍蝦(Ninjabot)[5]。這些奇思妙想的機械裝置都很趣,但是都未能完全揭開“激波等離子體槍”的秘密。

                  不過,我們從以往的文獻和流體力學相關項目的經驗推測出,蝦螯的幾何形態對于高速射流產生空化氣穴至關重要。因此我將導師收集到槍蝦巨螯的蝦蛻進行了X光CT掃描,并將掃描的信息轉化為高精度的三維模型進行仿生設計,最終成功打造出了我們自己的仿生激波等離子體槍裝置,基本還原了“蝦光現象”。

                    

                  X光三維掃描得到的槍蝦的巨螯的幾何形態(A-C)和對應的放大5倍的仿生裝置部件(D-F) | 唐鑫,David Staack 參考文獻[6]

                  一個典型的槍蝦巨螯主要由四部分構成:螯錘、螯塞、螯槽以及和倒數第二關節連接的螯節。其中螯錘與螯塞部分是主要的活動部分。槍蝦的激波等離子體槍在發射前,會先將巨螯張開到一定角度,然后通過肌肉控制觸發螯錘快速閉合,同時螯塞快速進入螯槽,迫使螯槽內的水從螯槽的射流通道快速排出。

                  這個過程類似于我們在水中擠壓充滿水的醫用注射器產生射流的過程,只不過我們的速度遠遠達不到槍蝦的速度(正所謂天下武功,唯快不破)。高速的射流使得水中部分位置的靜壓低于水的蒸汽壓,讓水在低壓下直接沸騰汽化為水蒸氣,這就是我們看到的空化氣泡。

                    

                    這個過程類似于在水中擠壓充滿水的醫用注射器產生射流 | Pexels

                  槍蝦巨螯的外骨骼、肌肉和關節精致復雜,而且在漫長的歲月里進化出了適合“激波等離子體槍”的生物動力學曲線,這很難用現有的精密機械裝置來替代。因此我就將這部分簡化為扭簧來為仿生槍蝦裝置提供動力,這個設計靈感來源于捕鼠夾和起釘器。

                  仿生裝置設計圖中的離合器就像手槍扳機一樣,在將裝有扭簧的螯塞部分打開到一定角度后用離合器來固定蓄勢待發的螯塞。在需要激發的時刻,抬起離合器,螯塞就會在扭簧的扭力作用下快速旋轉閉合,將螯槽中的水從噴管形狀的出口擠壓出來,形成高速的脈沖射流。

                  這高速脈沖射流以一定的角度從巨鰲的側面噴涌而出,形成低壓的空化氣泡。這把威力巨大的激波等離子體槍用的彈藥正是槍蝦們周圍的海水,可以說是取之不盡用之不竭啊。大家可以想象一下玩兒RPG游戲時高爆彈藥無限,猶如開掛一般的感覺。

                    

                    仿生槍蝦裝置的CAD設計圖和實物圖 | 唐鑫 參考文獻[6]

                  揭開蝦光現象的真容

                  槍蝦巨螯閉合時間是數個毫秒,若想看清楚整個激波等離子體槍發射過程,至少需要1000幀每秒的高速攝像機,普通手機的慢速模式可能只能捕捉到一兩幀空化氣泡真容。

                  在高速攝像機下,我們看到了仿生裝置產生空化氣泡的過程,以及空化氣泡塌縮過程中產生的激波。

                    

                    仿生槍蝦裝置生成空化氣穴的過程 | 唐鑫,David Staack

                    

                    空化氣穴坍縮在水中生成的激波 | 唐鑫,David Staack

                  而蝦光現象中產生的光非常微弱,必須借助非常復雜的設備(比如一些特種攝像機)在極度黑暗的環境中才可以捕捉到。我在暗室中拍攝到了第一張此類蝦光現象的照片,這些發光的空化氣泡照片在計算機處理后有便有了一種莫名的立體感。

                    

                  槍蝦仿生裝置在海水中的蝦光現象(A) 位置參照圖,紅色方片符號是多次實驗捕捉到的蝦光位置 (B) 具有飽和空氣的海水中的蝦光現象照片 | 唐鑫,David Staack

                  我們的這種仿生裝置產生空化氣泡的轉化效率大約達到了36%,是目前人造空化氣泡幾種方法中效率最高的[6]。

                  自然界中,槍蝦利用這一強大武器可以進行捕食、防御、交流以及在珊瑚礁上建造藏身之所。它們在生物進化過程中,已經將這種激波等離子體槍開發到了極致。

                  而這種產生空化的高效仿生裝置的誕生,將極大地促進相關科學工程領域的研究進展——如地熱鉆探:傳統機械鉆探都是PDC鉆頭在鉆井液中鉆探,但如果把空化氣穴和PDC鉆頭結合,在鉆井液中產生空化氣穴,在巖石表面引起微裂紋,就能夠提高鉆井速率,極大地降低鉆井成本。另外,還可能會對污水處理,水下激波處理回收,水下聲學裝置以及減少流體阻力等領域有所幫助。

                  希望我們的仿生裝置未來可以發揮出不可思議的功效,幫助解決更多工程領域的問題貢獻一臂之力。

                  花絮

                  在項目進展過程中,我還在網上買了五只佛羅里達的大螯槍蝦(Alpheus heterochaelis)放在實驗室內教授提供的海水魚缸中。實驗室小伙伴們還給每一只都取了名字,自此每天看槍蝦就成了實驗室的一大娛樂項目。槍蝦們的激波等離子體槍威力巨大,甚至將結實的魚缸震出了裂縫,得虧我們發現得早,否則缸中的海水全都漏光了……

                    

                    威武雄壯的大螯槍蝦和被震裂的魚缸 | 唐鑫

                  關于具體的研究細節,感興趣的朋友們可以直接戳鏈接看我們發表在Science Adcances上的文章:https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau7765

                  DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7765

                    

                  作者名片

                    

                  排版:凝音

                  題圖來源:wikipedia by Arthur Anker ? CC

                  參考文獻:

                  [1] D. of W. R. University of California, “Underwater noise caused by snapping shrimp” (San Diego, 1946), (available at https://escholarship.org/uc/item/30z3x42w).

                  [2] M. Versluis, B. Schmitz, A. von der Heydt, D. Lohse, How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles. Science. 289, 2114–2117 (2000).

                  [3] D. Lohse, B. Schmitz, M. Versluis, Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles. Nature. 413, 477–478 (2001).

                  [4] D. Hess, C. Brücker, F. Hegner, A. Balmert, H. Bleckmann, Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw. PLoS One. 8, e77120 (2013).

                  [5] S. M. Cox, D. Schmidt, Y. Modarres-Sadeghi, S. N. Patek, A physical model of the extreme mantis shrimp strike: kinematics and cavitation of Ninjabot. Bioinspir. Biomim. 9, 16014 (2014).

                  [6] X. Tang, D. Staack, Bioinspired mechanical device generates plasma in water via cavitation. Sci. Adv. 5, eaau7765 (2019).

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