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                  科學家薅完羊毛后,終于搞懂了為什么會有自然卷
                  2019-08-30 10:30:00 來源:科普中國

                  出品:科普中國

                  制作:蘇澄宇

                  監制:中國科學院計算機網絡信息中心

                  為什么有的人是直發,有的人則是卷發?這似乎是個簡單的問題,但答案卻相當復雜。

                  頭發是卷是直,基因說了算

                  從根本上來說,一個人頭發的質地是直的還是卷的,取決于ta的基因。之所以有卷發,其中的原理和豌豆差不多:人類的卷/直發是由等位基因控制的。直發是由EDAR的等位基因控制。

                    

                  EDAR在染色體上的位置 圖源Wikipedia

                  根據科學家的研究,如果我們按卷曲程度進行分級,大致可以得到8個等級的彎曲程度,等級越高,卷曲程度越大。

                    

                  8個不同等級的卷發程度圖源,文獻1

                  并且不同的毛發卷曲程度,其橫截面形狀也不一樣。通常來說,頭發越直,其橫截面越圓,看起來更粗。

                    

                  不同頭發彎曲類型的橫截面 圖源:https://curlyhairlounge.com

                  亞洲人一般屬于1——2等級的發質,如果想要擁有更卷的頭發只能去燙了。但近半數的歐洲人卻并不需要燙發,因為他們多數人的頭發卷曲程度更高。

                  據研究,在歐洲人群(高加索人)中,只有12% 的人有純粹的直發,36% 有等級2的卷發,38%有等級3卷發,剩下的都是等級4的卷發;亞洲人群中,約29%的人有直發,最多為等級2的卷發約51%,剩下的為16%的等級3卷發和2%的等級4卷發;而非洲人大多數都是等級5以上的卷發,詳見圖表:

                    

                  不同種族人群的發質差異 圖源:文獻1

                  除了遺傳因素外,其他如營養、生活環境、生活習慣等也對頭發的卷曲程度有影響。但最主要的還是遺傳因素,大概占了85~95%的影響性。這意味著你的直發或卷發,其原因約有十分之九可以歸于DNA。

                  同樣是卷發,為什么你的是波浪卷,我的是綿羊卷

                    

                  圖源:pixabay

                  這就得說到卷曲程度是由什么決定的了。

                  先科普一個小知識,毛發纖維的組織結構分為3層,即鱗片層、皮質層和髓質層。而皮質層是毛發纖維的主要組成部分,它是由許多蛋白質細胞組成的。皮質層細胞又分為正皮質層和副皮質層兩種。卷曲的毛發,在卷曲波外側的稱為正皮質細胞,內側的稱為副皮質細胞。

                  對于毛發的卷曲緣由,其主要理論就是圍繞這一層細胞展開,目前學界有兩種主流的看法。第一種是毛發的卷曲程度與毛發細胞的數量分布有關,卷曲纖維的外側(正皮質細胞)比內側(副皮質細胞)有更多的細胞,類似拱門的設計結構。隨著卷曲程度的增加,卷曲內側細胞數量減少。

                  第二種觀點認為,是因為較長的正皮質細胞排列在毛發纖維的外面,而副皮質細胞排列在毛發纖維的內邊緣,長度的差異導致毛發發生彎曲。

                  那到底哪種說法是對的呢?幾十年來一直都沒有結論,因為對于這個主題的研究長期處于理論階段,沒有人真的做實驗。最終這一科學真相的發現還得感謝美利奴綿羊。

                  檢測羊毛竟然能知道人頭發卷曲的真相?

                    

                  美利奴綿羊毛和人類的頭發非常相似,而且更容易研究

                  圖源:https://www.abc.net.au/cm/rimage/9572536-3x2-large.jpg?v=2

                  科學家為了搞懂頭發卷曲的真相,他們決定研究頭發的微觀結構。他們想到可以計算和測量單根頭發的毛細胞。可人類的頭發太粗了,細胞太多。

                  于是科學家們找到了美利奴綿羊,這是一種有著令人難以置信的纖細自然卷曲毛發的動物。并且美利奴羊毛比人類的頭發細5倍,其基本的生物學結構與人頭發相似,所以可以通過測量美利奴羊毛卷曲的原因知道人頭發卷曲的真相。

                    

                  美利奴綿羊毛比人類的頭發細5倍 圖源:CSIRO https://www.abc.net.au/cm/lb/9562512/data/hair-vs-wool-data.jpg

                  科學家從新西蘭的一個農場的6只美利奴綿羊身上薅了些羊毛。并選擇了其中700根羊毛,每根羊毛的直徑不超過5微米,長度不超過0.5厘米。

                  這些羊毛經過清洗,去除羊毛脂的涂層,以及羊毛在生長過程中造成的任何人為彎曲,從而使羊毛處于最自然的狀態。

                  之后,這些纖維被切成均勻的碎片,利用靜電力把它們移動到載玻片(一種玻璃片)上,對這些樣本的片段進行染色,最后在顯微鏡下觀察。測量出每個纖維的平均曲率,然后放大到曲線上精確點的細胞結構。

                    

                  載玻片上的單根羊毛片段 圖源:AgResearch Ltd https://www.abc.net.au/cm/lb/9570904/data/microscopic-wool-fibre-data.jpg

                  他們觀察了細胞數量內外側的差異,以及兩種不同類型的細胞內外側的分布規律。結果發現,這兩種假設都不正確。

                  研究結果發現顯示,雖然毛發的正皮層細胞在大多數情況下確實比的副皮層細胞要長,但有少數情況下副皮質層細胞比正皮質層細胞要長。

                    

                  染色顯示纖維狀的正皮層細胞(橙色)和副皮層細胞(綠色) 圖源:AgResearch Ltd https://www.abc.net.au/cm/lb/9568412/data/microscopic-fibre-data.jpg

                    

                  紅色為正皮質層細胞,綠色副皮質層細胞,在多數情況下,正皮層細胞比副皮質層細胞要長。圖源:文獻2

                  這就出現了一個問題,在毛發特定的位置,如果副皮質層比正皮質層要長,這個位置的毛發是如何卷曲的呢?因此科學家繼續研究發現,毛發卷曲不僅和細胞長度有關,還和細胞的排列方式也有關系。

                    

                  有時候正皮質層細胞(紅色)比副皮質層細胞(綠色)要長,有時候則反之,這是因為毛發卷曲不僅和細胞長度有關還和排列方式有關 圖源:文獻2

                  他們的結論是,毛發卷曲的關鍵并不在于細胞數量,而是在于細胞長度和排列方式。對于卷曲的頭發,在同樣數量的正皮質層細胞和副皮質層細胞下,由于細胞的長度和排列方式差異,導致卷發外徑長度比內徑要長得多。所以出現了毛發卷曲。頭發越直,內外的細胞長度越接近。

                  最終科學家將其研究成果發表在《實驗生物學雜志》Journal of Experimental Biology。

                    

                  紅色為外徑細胞,綠色為內徑細胞 圖源:文獻2

                  這就是毛發卷曲的秘密。

                  參考文獻:

                  Medland, S. E., Nyholt, D. R., Painter, J. N., McEvoy, B. P., McRae, A. F., Zhu, G., … Martin, N. G. (2009). Common Variants in the Trichohyalin Gene Are Associated with Straight Hair in Europeans. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 85(5), 750–755. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.009

                  Harland D P, Vernon J A, Woods J L, et al. Intrinsic curvature in wool fibres is determined by the relative length of orthocortical and paracortical cells[J]. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2018, 221(6): jeb172312.

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