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                  用了這么多太陽能電池,光變電的原理你不一定知道
                  2019-08-30 10:30:00 來源:科普中國

                  出品:科普中國

                  制作:陳浩(中科院青島生物能源與過程研究所碳基能源轉換材料研究組)

                  監制:中國科學院計算機網絡信息中心

                  能源的發展與革命推動了人類社會的變遷與進步,尤其是兩次工業革命以后,人們越發意識到能源發展的重要。

                  當今社會發展日新月異,但是以化石能源(如煤炭、石油等)為代表的傳統能源因再生周期長,儲量和質量逐年下降等問題,越來越難以滿足與日俱增的能源需求,新能源的開發和利用因此被提上日程。

                  從植物的光合作用中找靈感:利用太陽能發電

                  我們都知道,地球上所有生物所能利用的能量基本全部來自于植物的光合作用。

                    

                  圖1 光合作用示意圖(圖片來源:http://www.1010jiajiao.com/czsw/shiti_id_d623a67f6a9c974e1647ce187eb3f72a)

                  植物的光合作用是指在光照條件下,在植物葉綠體中以二氧化碳和水為原料合成糖的生物過程,由于糖類物質在代謝過程中可以產生能量,太陽能便通過這種方式被儲存下來。

                  然而,這種能量很難為我們直接利用,一般需要經過轉化才能成為我們普遍使用的電能。物理學原理告訴我們,能量轉化過程必然會帶來能量損失。于是,將太陽能直接轉化為電能的課題因此提上了日程。

                  那么,太陽能是否可以直接轉化為電能?這種轉化過程又與哪些因素相關?這對19世紀初的科學家們來講,這可是一個了不得的命題。

                  慶幸的是,這一難題在19世紀末取得了巨大突破。

                  擁有“最強大腦”的他發現了光與電的奧秘

                  1887年,著名物理學家赫茲(現今頻率的單位就是以他的名字命名的)在一次研究中偶然發現:光照射到某些物質表面,會引起物質電性質的改變。之后的研究證明,這是因為產生電子流導致的,因此這一現象被稱為“光電效應”。

                    

                    

                  圖2 光電效應示意圖(圖片來源:http://img.mp.itc.cn/upload/20160511/076aa3518f444e0c902e391fe7613d1e_th.jpg)

                  要知道,世界的運行原理需要符合物理學原理。在當時,牛頓建立的經典物理學原理統治著人們的思想。該原理認為光是在以太(古希臘哲學家亞里士多德設想的一種物質,19世紀被物理學家借用代指光傳播的介質)這種介質中傳遞的一種波(可以想象一下石子投入湖中的場景,湖面蕩起一圈圈以水為介質向外傳遞的波紋),而波的能量與振幅(振動幅度)有關(光波的振幅即為光的強度)。

                    

                  圖3 石子投入湖中產生波紋 (圖片來源:https://huaban.com/pins/1796511277/)

                  這件事貌似非常符合常理。可以想象,冬天陽光不強,曬在身上有暖洋洋的感覺;而夏日里,陽光刺眼,如果不注意防護皮膚都有可能被曬傷。因此,在經典物理學下,光電效應能否發生取決于光的強度;然而,這一理論與當時的一系列實驗結果相悖離。

                  研究表明,同一種物質,有些顏色的光無論光強多少都無法發生光電效應,有些顏色的光即使強度很低也能產生電流,經典物理學隨之陷入危機:一場席卷整個科學界的風暴正在醞釀。

                  風暴中孕育著毀滅,但隨之而來的還有新生。科學不會停滯不前,一位位科學巨匠在風暴中心劈波斬浪,經典物理學在相對論物理與量子物理的雙重修正下再次揚帆起航。

                  而解決光電效應難題的,正是我們所熟知的阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦。

                  愛因斯坦因建立相對論而廣為人知,但大家可能不知道,這么偉大的科學家險些沒有拿到被稱為科學界至高榮譽的諾貝爾獎(諾貝爾獎從不頒發給有爭議的發現,而對相對論的討論和爭議至今仍未停歇)。

                  愛因斯坦榮獲1921年諾貝爾物理學獎得益于其對光電效應的創造性解釋。他提出,光是由光子組成的,而光子的本質是一個個能量包,每一個能量包所蘊含的能量與它的頻率(單位時間(1s)內的變化次數)有關,因此光照射到物體上能否產生電子完全取決于能量包(光子)的能量(頻率),與能量包的數量(光強)無關。

                  太陽能電池就像一塊“三明治”

                  以上我們介紹了光電效應的發現歷程,也知道如何才能產生光電效應,那么,產生的電子該如何被我們所利用呢?

                  這就牽扯到了另外一個概念——能級躍遷。

                    

                  圖4 能級躍遷示意圖(青島生物能源與過程研究所,碳基能源轉換材料研究組)

                  原子由原子核和核外電子構成,原子核外的電子并非是散亂排布的,而是遵循物理學原理分層排布的,靠近原子核的電子能量低,越遠離原子核的電子能量越高,不同層的電子能量不同,這些能量值也被稱為“能級”。

                  在正常條件下,核外電子總是趨近于以總能量最低的形式進行排布,這樣的電子,我們稱它處于“基態”。基態的原子接收到某種形式的能量(如光子)后,便會自發轉移到能量更高的能級,這便是能級躍遷,躍遷后的電子便稱它處于“激發態”。

                  但是很不幸,激發態的電子并不穩定,有向低能級躍遷的趨勢,電子具有的多余能量便以光能或者熱能的形式散發掉了。

                  不對,能量就這樣散發了,我們還是沒有獲得電能啊?

                  別著急,要想將光電效應產生的電流傳導出來,我們需要構筑合適的器件結構,也就是我們常說的太陽能電池(如圖2所示)。

                  器件結構形似三明治,具有光電效應的活性層被電子傳輸層和空穴(電子躍遷后形成的局部缺電子部分稱為空穴)傳輸層夾在中間,兩端為電極材料,一般是金屬和氧化銦錫(ITO)。

                  基態的原子接收到某種形式的能量(如光子)后,便會自發轉移到能量更高的能級,這便是能級躍遷,躍遷后的電子便稱它處于“激發態”。因為電子傳輸層的激發態能級比活性層的略低一些,所以活性層激發態的電子容易傳遞到電子傳輸層,而不是回到活性層的基態;而空穴傳輸層基態比活性層基態電子能量略高,電子有向活性層基態傳遞的趨勢。

                  這就好像給電子設置了一個個小臺階,讓電子只需“抬抬腳”就邁過去了,而不是艱難的跳躍(躍遷),因而整個過程很容易實現。

                  通過電子傳輸層和空穴傳輸層的有效配合,整個器件構成了一個完整的回路,活性層產生的電子就可以被導出進而為我們所用了。

                    

                  圖5 常見的太陽能電池器件結構示意圖(青島生物能源與過程研究所,碳基能源轉換材料研究組)

                  好啦,經過轉化過程,我們終于從太陽能直接獲得了電能而這就是太陽能電池的原理。科學探索的腳步永不停歇,也正因為這些偉大科學家們偉大的研究與發現,人們的生活才能變得越來越好,讓我們向他們致敬!

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